Haptens and Conjugates in Antigen Development

We offer hapten design and conjugation tailored to antibody discovery.

Small molecules are not antigenic unless complexed with an immunogenic carrier. When conjugated to immunogenic carriers, such molecules, termed haptens, can illicit strong hapten-specific antibody responses. We can design haptens with a specific conjugation site to enable specific orientation of the happen to elicit and purify antibodies.

We have a variety of carrier proteins and chemistries for hapten conjugation. Carrier proteins used include bovine serum albumin, keyhole limpit hemocyanin, and others. Multiple conjugation chemistries are available using single- or multi-step reactions and homo- and hetero-bifunctional cross-linkers.

Hapten conjugates have been used extensively to obtain sensitive probes for chemicals of interest, including toxins, hormones, pharmaceuticals, and abuse of drugs and their metabolites. With today’s immunization methodologies, antibody responses can be elicited against almost all organic small molecules, provided they are conjugated to an appropriate carrier.

Antibody Solutions offers a wealth of expertise in developing antibodies to haptens and small molecules. Antibodies raised in rabbits or goats are typically purified and characterized as described under Polyclonal Antibodies. Immunized mice and rats are typically processed for creation of monoclonal antibodies as described under Monoclonal Antibody Discovery.

We welcome challenging hapten design and conjugation projects.